CAN-EDU-1
Canada Overview
The world’s second largest country by surface but relatively small in terms of population The country are wealth natural resources, minerals and fossil fuels. Furthermore the country’s other key part of economy are including agriculture, mining, transportation and telecommunication. Canada having a 13% share of global oil reserves.

Export of Canada
Canada is one of the few developed nations that are a net exporter of energy. Canada also exports motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment and electronics.
Key export partner is United State

Import of Canada
Canada imports mostly machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, electronics, chemicals, electricity and durable consumer goods.
Key import partners are United States, European Union, China and Mexico

Current economic situation
The overall economy was affected by the dip in oil and commodities prices. New Canada’s Prime minister will run the budget deficit policy to stimulate the economy from continuously deceleration.

Canadian interest rate is 0.50% and Inflation rate is 1.30%

***Change in oil and natural resources price will impact “CAD”
***Due to United State is the key trade partner of Canada so the movement of USD will directly impact to Canada export and import

Ref: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-16841111, http://www.tradingeconomics.com/

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Switzerland Overview

A landlocked, mountainous country, Switzerland’s geographical position in central Europe. The country have a very high political stability and be one of the world’s wealthiest countries. Switzerland is a modern market economy with low unemployment and a highly skilled labor force Switzerland have a very effective monetary policy and management of public finances.

Export of Switzerland
Pharmaceuticals comes the first place of Swiss’s export, follow by Industrial Machinery, Clocks & Watches, Precious Stones & Metals.
Key export partners are Germany, United State, Italy and France

Import of Switzerland
Pharmaceuticals also comes as the first place of SWISS’s import , follow by Industrial Machinery, Precious Stones & Metals, Motor Vehicles & Parts and Electrical Machinery.
Key import partners are Germany, Italy, France, United State and China

Current economic situation
The overall economy of Switzerland has weakened in 2015, but the growth is expected to rise gradually into 2016. The exports and business investment was suffered from currency appreciation. Lower oil prices combined with the strong Swiss franc are bringing inflation back into negative.

Swiss interest rates is hold at -0.75% , Inflation rate is-1.4%

***Due to Germany is the major trade partner of Switzerland so if there is substantial change in Euro it will directly affect Swiss’s economy.

Ref: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-17980650, http://www.tradingeconomics.com/

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Japan Overview

Japan has the world’s third-largest economy, having achieved remarkable growth in the second half of the 20th Century after the devastation of the Second World War. The Japanese economy was one of the earliest in Asia to industrialize, a strong work ethic, mastery of high technology helped Japan to develop their economy to grow dramatically in the past decade before the long sluggish.

Export of Japan
Main exports are transport equipment , transport vehicles accounting , machinery, electrical machinery , and manufactured goods .
Key export partners are the United States, China, South Korea and Taiwan

Import of Japan
Japan main imports are mineral fuels with petroleum, machinery, food, manufactured goods, chemicals and raw materials.
Key import partners are China, the United States, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Qatar

Current economic situation
The economy has now rebounded from the contraction in 2014. The Bank of Japan’s QQE should continue until achieve the inflation target of 2%. The reduction of public debt remains a top priority as gross public debt reaches 230% of GDP. China economic sluggish also has create a high impact on the country economy.

Japan interest rate is 0.1%, inflation rate is 0.2%

***Japan is the industrialize country, the country need fuel to run the business so any change in the price of fuel will directly affect to Japanese economy in the long run.
***The United State and Asian countries are the keys driver of Japanese economy.
***QQE is using to stimulate the economy

Ref: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-14918801, http://www.tradingeconomics.com/

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Australia

Australia Overview
Australia ranks as one of the best places to live in the world by all indices of income, human development, healthcare and civil rights. The sixth-largest country in the world by land mass, its comparatively small population is concentrated in the highly-urbanized east of the Australian continent.

Export of Australia
Australia is a major exporter of commodities. Main exports are metals like iron-ore and gold, coal, oil and gas.
Key export partners are China, Japan, South Korea, India and the European Union countries

Import of Australia
Australia import are machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines and telecommunication.
Key import partners are China, United States, Japan and Singapore

Current economic situation
Australia’s economy decelerated sharply as the slowdown in China, its biggest trading partner, dented exports and mining construction. Economic output grew by a less than expected 0.2 per cent. This follows even worse readings from fellow resource economies Canada and Brazil, which this week slipped into recession amid a slump in commodity prices.

Australian interest rate is 2.00%, inflation rate is 1.50%

***Australia is one of the largest commodities exporter, so if there is any significantly changing in commodities price it will directly affect to the value of AUD and Australian economy
***Most of Australia’s trading partners are Asian countries especially China, so the slowdown of Chinese economy also affected Australian economy

Ref: http://country.eiu.com/australia, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-15674351, http://www.tradingeconomics.com/

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New Zealand Overview
New Zealand has a small open economy which operates on free market principles. It has a sizable manufacturing and a large services sector complementing a highly efficient export-oriented agricultural sector. Primary commodities account for more than half of total goods exports while exports of goods and services represent around one third of real expenditure GDP.

Export of New Zealand
New Zealand’s economy is greatly dependent on international trade. Its major exports include meat, dairy products, forest products, fruit and vegetables, fish, and wool.
Keys export partners are Australia, European Union, United States, China and Japan

Import of New Zealand
New Zealand major imports are machinery and equipment, vehicles and aircraft, petroleum, electronics, textiles and plastics.
Key import partners are Australia, European Union, China, United States and Japan

Current economic situation
Further declines in business sentiment and consumer confidence across the September quarter show that risks to the near-term outlook are to the downside. That said, monetary conditions have continued to ease and this will support a pick-up in growth further out.

New Zealand interest rate is 2.75%, inflation rate is 0.30%

***New Zealand’s economy mostly dependent on agricultural commodities products, therefore the climate change and natural disaster are very important
***Australian economy have highly impact on the country economy
***Any significant change in the agricultural commodities price will directly impact on NZD and New Zealand economy

http://www.treasury.govt.nz/economy/overview/2015/06.htm ,http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-15357770, http://www.treasury.govt.nz/economy/mei/archive/pdfs/mei-sep15.pdf

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United Kingdom Overview
The United Kingdom is made up of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. It has a long history as a major player in international affairs and fulfils an important role in the EU, UN and NATO. Britain was the world’s first industrialized country. Its economy remains one of the largest, but it has for many years been based on service industries rather than on manufacturing.

Export of UK
The United Kingdom mainly exports machinery and transport equipment, manufactured products, chemical products and mineral fuels.
Key export partners are United States, Germany, France, the Netherlands and Ireland

Import of UK
The United Kingdom mainly imports machinery and transport equipment, manufactured products, mineral fuels, lubricants and chemical products.
Key import partners are Germany, China, United States, Netherlands and France

Current economic situation

The pace of UK economic growth slowed in the third quarter of the year. While the economy is still expanding steadily, sector performance is mixed. Services are growing robustly but manufacturing and construction are struggling. Expect the first increase in the Bank Rate, to 0.75%, to occur in Q2 2016

UK interest rate is 0.50%, inflation rate is 0.10%

***Major partner of UK is United State, so the American economy will have high impact on the UK economy
***Using QE to stimulate the economy
***EU crisis also affected the UK economy

Ref: http://www.britishchambers.org.uk/Q3%20Economic%20Forecast%20FULL%20REPORT.pdf, http://www.tradingeconomics.com/, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-18023389

European Union Overview
The European Union describes itself as a family of democratic European countries, committed to working together for peace and prosperity. Around two-thirds of EU countries’ total trade is done with other EU countries. EU remains the world’s largest player of global imports in 2011. The EU was also the biggest exporter, accounting for 15.4% of all exports.

Due to EU is combined with many country so it is quite hard to define the export and import products, However the total trade is done within EU countries followed by the United State.

Current economic situation
The euro area is continuing its ongoing recovery, all its economies are expected to grow again this year. While determined policy action and the fall in crude oil prices should support growth, the economic recovery is being restrained by longstanding weak growth trends, as well as by legacies of the recent economic and financial crisis including ongoing external rebalancing, high public and private debt and related deleveraging pressures, high levels of unemployment and low confidence together with a persistent weakness in investment. Further determined policy efforts are necessary to help overcome these weaknesses permanently.

***Germany and France are the key economic driver of EU
***Greece crisis have highly impact all over the Euro Zone
***Spain and Italy are recovering
***Volkswagen have highly pressure on German economy
***ECB is considering to extend the QE limit and time period
***Using QE

Ref: http://ec.europa.eu/europe2020/pdf/csr2015/cr2015_euroarea_en.pdf, http://www.civitas.org.uk/eufacts/OS/OS1.php, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/3498746.stm

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US

United State of America Overview

The Great Recession in the U.S. started in December 2007 and lasted for 18 months. In late 2008, in an effort to help kick-start the economy, the Federal Reserve initiated its QE program and sent short-term interest rates tumbling to near zero. The low interest rate environment was supposed to encourage banks to lend more money to businesses and people.

Export of USA
The United States main exports are capital goods, industrial supplies, consumer goods, automotive vehicles, parts and engines, foods, feeds and beverages.
Key export partners are Canada, Mexico, China, Japan, Germany and the United Kingdom

Import of USA
The United States main imports are capital goods and consumer goods, Industrial Supplies, automotive vehicles, parts and engines, foods, feeds and beverages
Key Import partners are China, Canada, Mexico, Japan , and Germany

Current economic situation
Output growth paused in early 2015 due the stronger dollar. The labor market has continued to improve, as evidenced by job gains in the private sector and a falling unemployment rate. Ongoing increases in household wealth lift up consumer spending and residential construction.

***It’s been a serious doubt as to whether or not the U.S. economy can sustain higher rates.
*** US economic data are mostly positive

US interest rate 0.25%, inflation rate 0.20%

Ref: http://www.oecd.org/unitedstates/united-states-economic-forecast-summary.htm, http://www.tradingeconomics.com, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html

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